Words in Context:

Pronunciation Dictionary:

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Reading Practice (Intermediate):

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Writing Prompts:

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Spanish Verb Tense Conjugations


This is used to talk about continuous actions in the past (think “used to”) and to make descriptions in the past (e.g. to describe the weather yesterday).


AR verbs (cantar)

Yo cantABA

Tú cantABAS

Él/Ella/Usted cantABA

Nosotros/Nosotras cantÁBAMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes cantABAN

ER verbs (vender)

Yo vendÍA

Tú vendÍAS

Él/Ella/Usted vendÍA

Nosotros/Nosotras vendÍAMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes vendÍAN

IR verbs (vivir)

Yo vivÍA

Tú vivÍAS

Él/Ella/Usted vivÍA

Nosotros/Nosotras vivÍAMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes vivÍAN

*ER and IR verbs have the same endings in the imperfect


Yo visitaba a mi tía cada verano

  • I used to visit my aunt every summer

Hacía calor ayer

  • It was hot yesterday

Present Continuous

Think of -ing (doing, making, having etc.) in the present tense.


Estar in the present tense + gerund (also called present participle)

Estar in the present tense:

Yo estoy

Tú estás

Él/Ella/Usted está

Nosotros/Nosotras estamos

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes están


  • For AR verbs take off the AR and add “ANDO” instead (e.g. the gerund of “cantar” is “cantando”)
  • For ER/IR verbs take off the ER/IR and add “IENDO” instead (e.g. the gerund of “vender” is vendiendo and the gerund of “vivir” is “viviendo”)


Estoy hablando con mi papá

  • I am talking with my dad

Estamos vendiendo nuestros libros

  • We are selling our books


This is used to give both positive and negative commands.


AR verbs (cantar)

(Tú) ¡cantA!

(Tú) ¡no cantES!

(Usted) ¡cantE!

(Usted) ¡no cantE!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡cantEMOS!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡no cantEMOS!

(Ustedes) ¡cantEN!

(Ustedes) ¡no cantEN!

ER verbs (vender)

(Tú) ¡vendE!

(Tú) ¡no vendAS!

(Usted) ¡vendA!

(Usted) ¡no vendA!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡vendAMOS!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡no vendAMOS!

(Ustedes) ¡vendAN!

(Ustedes) ¡no vendAN!

IR verbs (vivir)

(Tú) ¡vivE!

(Tú) ¡no vivAS!

(Usted) ¡vivA!

(Usted) ¡no vivA!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡vivAMOS!

(Nosotros/Nosotras) ¡no vivAMOS!

(Ustedes) ¡vivAN!

(Ustedes) ¡no vivAN!

*ER and IR verbs have the same endings in the imperative


¡Cantemos juntos!

  • Let’s sing together!

¡Limpia tu dormitorio!

  • Clean your room!

¡No hablen!

  • Don’t speak! (to more than one person)


This is used to express anything that is not certain and usually follows the word “que”.


AR verbs (cantar)

Yo cantE

Tú cantES

Él/Ella/Usted cantE

Nosotros/Nosotras cantEMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes cantEN

ER verbs (vender)

Yo vendA

Tú vendAS

Él/Ella/Usted vendA

Nosotros/Nosotras vendAMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes vendAN

IR verbs (vivir)

Yo vivA

Tú vivAS

Él/Ella/Usted vivA

Nosotros/Nosotras vivAMOS

Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes vivAN

*ER and IR verbs have the same endings in the subjunctive


No pienso que él viva aquí

  • I don’t think he lives here

Dudo que ellos hablen sobre el trabajo

  • I doubt that they are talking about the work

Present Indicative –

Preterite  –

Present Perfect –

Future – &

Conditional –

Imperfect Subjunctive –

Irregular Verbs (Comprehensive List) –

Spanish Useful Tips

Tú vs. Usted

Both ‘tú’ and ‘usted’ can be translated to the singular ‘you’ in English, but one must be careful to use these two words appropriately in different situations. ‘Tú’ is a more informal pronoun and should therefore be used in informal situations with friends or family. ‘Usted’ is a more formal pronoun and should therefore be used in formal situations with superiors (e.g. teachers, employers) or persons one does not know well.

Saber vs. Conocer

Both ‘saber’ and ‘conocer’ can be translated to the English verb ‘to know’, but one must be careful to use these two verbs appropriately given the context. ‘Saber’ is used when discussing facts and learned skills (e.g. knowing how to swim) whereas ‘conocer’ is used when discussing familiarity or acquaintance with something or someone (e.g. to know a person).

Be Careful of Accents!

Accents in spanish can sometimes change the meaning of words and should therefore be paid much attention. Here are some examples of words which change meaning with the addition of accents:

mi – my; mí – me

el – the (masculine); él – he

tu – your (singular, informal); tú – you (singular, informal)